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MA181 INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL MODELLING
Splus: GETTING STARTED
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Log on to a networked PC workstation and load the statistical
package Splus.
Splus gives th $P$-values in all the tests. Using the $P$-values
we have a rule:
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Reject $H_0$ if $P$-value is less than $\alpha$.
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\begin{enumerate}
\item
\textbf{Plots and tests:} From the Data menu on top (after File,
Edit, View, Insert) go for Select Data. Then select New Data and
type in a name, for example \textit{January8}. Type in the
following numbers (vertically in one column):
$$18.6,8.7,9.1,11.2,16.2,14.7,8.2,12.4,11.6,9.8$$
\begin{itemize}
\item
\textbf{Summary stats:} From your created data sheet go to:
Statistics$\Leftarrow$ Data Summaries$\Leftarrow$Summary
Statistics
and then select $<$All$>$ on variable click ok on the dialog. You
get all kinds of summaries in the Report 1 window.
\item
\textbf{Histogram} Click on the icon just before it says Linear
underneath the Help button. It should say \lq\lq 2D Plots''. You
are now ready to experiment with the graphics. Highlight you
column of data (just one click) and then click on the histogram
icon (row 6, column 4). It should give you a histogram.
\item
\textbf{Boxplot} Highlight you column of data on the data sheet.
Then on the 2Dplot panel click on the B icon (last but one row,
last but one column). You should then see a boxplot for your data.
\item
\textbf{t-test:} From your created data sheet go to:
statistics$\Leftarrow$Compare Samples$\Leftarrow$One
Sample$\Leftarrow$ $t$ Test
and then select V1 on the drop-down variable box. Change null
hypothesis mean to 10 and then click ok. It does a $t$ test for
$H_0:\mu=10$ and gives you a confidence interval as well. By
changing the confidence level (which defaults to 95\%) you can
obtain different confidence intervals with different confidence
coefficients.
\end{itemize}
\item
\textbf{Commands window} is for doing arithmetic
\begin{itemize}
\item
Type 3+2 and hit enter. What do you get?
\item
Type $pnorm(1.96)$.
\item
Type $qnorm(0.975)$.
\item
Type $?qnorm$.
\item
Type $x<-c(3.27,3.17,3.24,2.92,2.99)$.
\item
Type sum$(x)$, mean$(x)$, var $(X)$, sum$(y^2)$.
\item
Type $qt(0.975,4)$, see the last example on confidence intervals
in handed out notes.
\end{itemize}
\item
You can quit at any time by doing File$\Leftarrow$Exit pr typing
q() on the commands window.
\item
\textbf{Exercises} Now you are ready to do lots of things. For
example, you can solve problem numbers 34 and 35 from Exercise
sheet 9.
\item
\textbf{Exporting output to Microsoft word:} Simply highlight the
Report 1 window and then do Edit$\Leftarrow$Copy and finally paste
it into your word window. Once you are in word then you can edit
the document you want.
\item
\textbf{Where to go from here?}
You can:
\begin{itemize}
\item
See the visual demo from the Help button.
\item
Get help from Help.
\item
Edit the graphics window, as you have seen it in its visual demo.
\item
Double click on V1 in your data set, and then type \lq $x$' to
rename the column to $x$.
\item
Try to import data from Excel or other places.
\end{itemize}
\end{enumerate}
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