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Johari window

The Johari Window is used as a 'disclosure/feedback model of self- awareness’. It considers various aspects of a person in relationships with other groups. The focus is on feelings, experience, views, attitudes, skills, intentions, and motivation. This is considered from four perspectives as detailed in the table.

1. The open area
What is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others.

(e.g. competencies, ability to get on with the team, punctuality).

2. The blind spot
What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know.

(e.g. mannerisms, personal hygiene issues, non-verbal communication issues such as poor eye contact, loud or soft voice).

3. The hidden area
What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know 

(e.g. undisclosed disabilities, bullying, anxiety and/or lack of confidence issues, drug and alcohol dependency issues, financial problems).

4. The unknown area
What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others.

(e.g. ability to complete future competencies and assignments – this is a relevant area for new students who are unsure as to what is expected of them).

Click on the link to find out more about the Johari Window.

Tell model

TELL the learner about the specific behaviour you want repeated or changed. Be objective and give examples of situations (It has been noticed that you were late three times this week and on two occasions were not wearing your uniform correctly).

EXPLAIN the implications of the learner’s actions (positive/ negative). Do not make this personal and avoid using terms such as “I think…”.   (E.g. being late means you miss handover and we have to find additional time to go over this with you. Also, by wearing a long sleeved top under your uniform means that you do not comply with the infection control policies).

LISTEN to the learners ideas for correcting the problem.  Be prepared to see a different perspective and to negotiate an agreeable solution.

LET the learner know what the consequences are if they do not change but avoid being confrontational or making commitments that you cannot meet (e.g.  if you continue to arrive late and incorrectly dressed I will not be able to pass you in this placement).

Pendleton’s model

This model encourages learners to look for positives within themselves first, rather than automatically focusing on their perceived negatives (we all have a tendency to do this!). It can be used to provide a more positive approach to your feedback and can be useful in building confidence in your learners. It uses a very structured approach which can ensure that both partners know what is expected of them during the feedback session.
The steps to this process are as follows:

  • Learner performs activity
  • Mentor asks them how they felt (intervening if they start to talk about negative aspects)
  • Mentor asks learner what they felt had gone well and why
  • Mentor gives feedback on what was done well and why
  • Mentor asks learner what they could have done better and how
  • Mentor then gives feedback on what could have been done better in a supportive manner
Non Violent communication model

This uses a similar approach to the TELL model and places significance on feelings. It is designed to take out the emotional charge when giving feedback and so avoiding confrontation. It places an emphasis on deep-listening both to ourselves and others and avoids language of blame, judgement or domination.
The stages of this model are:

  • Observations
  • Feelings
  • Needs
  • Requests

Here is an example of how this approach could be used with a learner who is reluctant to undertake activities. The idea here is that there is clarity in each aspect of this conversation.

NVC Example
‘ I have noticed that you are reluctant to undertake any of the activities that I have set up for you. I feel frustrated that you are not getting the most from this placement. I need you to become more involved with your own development therefore I request that you work more closely with the ward team to ensure that all your competencies are completed by week 7 of your placement’.